The Buddha’s One Noble Truth?

In his 1958 classic “The Philosophy of the Buddha” Prof. Archie J. Bahm analyses the most ancient Buddhist scriptures (“Sutta” and “Vinaya Pitakas”) and suggests that during his 40 year career as a teacher the Buddha only taught one single universal Truth: unfullfilled desire causes frustration and the rejection of frustration is the source of suffering. According to Bahm, all other teachings including the “Four Noble Truths” and the “Eightfold Path” must have been later added to the philosophy by “other minds” due to misunderstandings of what the Buddha was trying to convey.
Now, you may ask, what is so hard to understand about the fact that unfulfilled desire causes suffering? By digging into the problem of desire more closely one easily understands why.

If the cause of suffering is unfulfilled desire, the solution to the problem must be to stop desiring. Simple as that. Simple? Not quite. Basically there are two ways of stopping desire: one either gets out of sight of the objects of desire (seclusion) or one tries to beat desire (asceticism). However, neither of these two approaches really work as the Buddha found out for himself during his pre-enlightment spiritual seeking. On the one hand, some basic desires such as food and sex are not extinguishable as long as one is still human. On the other hand, the desire to stop desiring is still a desire, just a more subtle form of it. So, it is impossible to willingly not desire, because that would be a desire! Furthermore one could argue that stop desiring is not even really desirable as desires provide motivation and fulfilled desires provide satisfaction. By creating emotions, desires are life-affirming.

So desire, when not fulfilled, provides frustration. Stopping desire, though, is life-negating and actually impossible. Not so simple, is it? This is were the genius of the Buddha comes in. He discovered the “Middle Way” between desiring and desiring not to desire. Here is how it goes: if we always desired exactly what we are getting, we would always get satisfaction and the sensation of being alive. Or in other words, if we always accepted everything AS IT IS (within and without), which includes the suffering, we would be free from suffering and live in joy.

Hold on, you may say, how can one accept everything without desiring to accept everything? Of course you are right, accepting without desiring to accept is impossible. Whenever you want something, you desire it, and since trying to not want is also a desire, the attempt will cause endless frustration and suffering. It’s like trying to relax a muscle by forcing it to relax. It just won’t work.
Nevertheless, there is a way the get into the “Middle Way”. It’s a paradoxical way, though. Once the desire to get into the “Middle Way” (or any other desired state) is completely broken, one automatically falls into it. Again, because this “break” cannot directly be achieved by will-power, the way “there” is to either completely exhaust the will to get “there” by trying as sincerely and forcefully as possible (remember the Buddha had his sudden enlightenment at the moment of renouncing 7 years of hard-core asceticism!) or by thoroughly realising by other means that the YOU has no power or control over the process of accepting or desiring. The former way is nowadays practised in Zen (e.g. with “koans”), the latter in Advaita (“SELF-realization” aka “there is no YOU”). Both, the exhaustion of the will or “Self-realization”, leads to a surrender to WHAT IS, which paradoxically, yields exactly what one was desiring to get but what one actually prevented from getting by the very desiring (or desiring to not desire) to get it!
Now, to make the long story short, the surrendering to Samsara (the world AS IS) is the way to Nirvana (desiring WHAT IS). Samadhi is the complete willingness to accept the actual as the ideal. The crux, though, is that surrendering cannot be achieved by the individual (“ego”), one has to be pushed into it, as it were, by some sort of grace in the form of will-undermining insight(s).

Finally, why does Prof. Bahm conclude that this is the only Truth that the Buddha taught? First of all, the Buddha was concerned with one thing only: the cessation of suffering. According to the records he stated this very clearly. Then he discovered that the only solution to the problem of suffering lies in surrendering to the present moment (WHAT IS). So, everything that was not concerned with the present moment like concepts of the past (e.g. “karma”) or the future (e.g. “reincarnation”) or any other metaphysical speculation (e.g. the question of the “soul”) he did not deem helpful for solving the problem of suffering. Therefore in the ancient texts the Buddha never answered any questions of that sort. He neither denied nor affirmed these concepts. For the Buddha in the oldest scriptures, the existence or non-existence of metaphysical entities and ideas simply did not change the fact that to end suffering one had to come to surrender to whatever IS in this very moment no matter what the cause or effect of this present moment was. By implication, this also means that as long as one’s ideas lead one to align one’s desires with WHAT IS, any “Truth” would be as good as another.
For the very same reason the Buddha also refrained from stating anything idealistic or from proclaiming any sort of higher virtues (e.g. he never idealised a monastic lifestyle or compassion). Whatever IS is to be surrendered to to end suffering. That is the full story of the teaching in the old texts. All else, including all methods and “Paths”, must have been added later by disciples not fully understanding the full depth of “whatever IS” (on the other hand, though, one could easily conclude, that all Buddhist methods and concepts must have been created to completely frustrate the seeker and/or make him experience his lack of power to get to Nirvana in order to bring him to the very brink of it).

Additional personal note: the old-school philosophy of Buddha portrayed here can be criticised for the lack of moral outrage at the obvious evils like cruelty in the world. If one, for some reason or other, though, cannot surrender to the present-moment because of its monstrosity, and suffers as a result of it, one could still surrender to the non-surrender and the suffering, and therefore transcend the suffering. Hence, accepting “whatever IS” is not fatalistic. One can have an (unfulfillable) desire for a world without cruelty and not suffer, if (s)he can surrender to the frustration of this unfulfilled desire.
This little conundrum also explains the difference between before and after getting into “surrendering-mode”. “Before” one suffers over one’s frustration and because of that one starts suffering over the suffering, and suffering of the suffering over the suffering, etc. Suffering creates a downward spiral, a grip, if not surrendered to. “After” one may be frustrated (because of one’s unfulfilled desire) but one does not suffer over the frustration because the frustration is accepted. The spiral of suffering stops right there.
Furthermore, allthough I think that many of our desires actually stem from our fears and insecurities I see the Buddha’s point in not being concerned with the causes of desire, as the causes could be indefinite. Instead he went right to the immediate solution: accepting whatever IS includes one’s suffering caused by one’s fears. Quite smart the guy…
buddhaensofty


This Is IT?

One of the most cited pointers in the tradition of Zen or Advaita Vedanta is the realization that “this is it”, or that “thou art that”, respectively. To understand the deeper meaning of this pointer is sometimes referred to as the ultimate realization on the path. But what exactly is this “this” or this “that”?

First of all we ought not to forget that pointers do not refer to concrete things or facts. They are teaching tools, that is to say, they are symbolic images or metaphors to invoke an awakening, a realization of the Truth. Since realization is the intuitive understanding of the reference of all these metaphors, until the realization, spiritual seekers on the path will inevitably mistake the metaphors for their reference.

Now, what does that mean?

Just as if I said “you are a nut”, I would not try to suggest that you are literally a nut, spiritual metaphors like “there is no-self” or “there is only consciousness” do not refer to an absence of a person or a hidden, numinous reality. What these metaphors directly point to is nothing but the only reality there is, which is that which we are sensing and feeling right here now. That’s whats real. Hence, the ultimate Truth all seekers are looking for is almost embarrassingly simple: it is what we see, hear, smell, taste, touch and feel in each moment. All else is mere subjective interpretation of Truth, taught about what “is”, or Maya, illusion.

So, spiritual pointers, ultimately, are reminders for people who have forgotten about the most obvious thing: that life constitutes of what we experience, and, thus, that existence is most fulfilling when we are open and receptive to what is going on now. The reason seekers take years (or even lifetimes!) to get this utterly simple fact, is because they are used to compartmentalize the Truth, that is, what they sense and feel, in desirable and undesirable aspects. Thereby they have conditioned themselves to avoid certain aspects of the Truth and to grasp others. This constant “movement” away or towards what “is” forever estranges them from the intimacy of resting in the moment. Spiritual seeking is the ultimate contradiction in terms: it is a search for something that is never not right here now. As they seek it, they must miss it.

So, then, what does the pointer “this is it” mean? Yes, you guessed it right: it’s pointing to the immediate experience in this moment. It does not refer to a “now I’ve got it!” kind of state or flash of insight, but to whatever we experience in this very moment. Whatever that is, is sacred. Experience is the source of divinity, the nourishment of the soul, our life-blood. The more we cherish it, the more we feel alive.

What we all truly want is to have a “rich” life. True richness is not linked to abstract ideas of wealth or achievements but to the ability to be intimate with what is happening. Whenever we are moved and touched by life, it provides us purpose, meaning and direction. On the other hand, if we are incapable of being moved and touched by it, our souls dry out and life becomes a meaningless drag. Once we fully realize this utterly simple fact, that all that counts in life is whether we are capable of sensing and feeling properly or not, our perspective and outlook changes from striving for a life to paying attention to life.

The perennial message is this: THIS is it! THIS is what matters! THIS is the Beloved. THIS is what we have always been searching for! Where else could it be? Stop talking and philosophizing about the good life, just get lost in it! Trust me it works. It always does. Being alive is bliss.

“You must live in the present, launch yourself on every wave, find your eternity in each moment. Fools stand on their island of opportunities and look toward another land. There is no other land, there is no other life but this.”
~Henry David Thoreau